From research to the production stage, this is how porcelain tiles are made!
Porcelain tiles are among the most popular materials used in modern building projects thanks to its technical and aesthetic qualities.
With an annual production capacity exceeding 7 million m², Caesar Ceramiche has been a reference point in their production for over thirty years: one of the first to bet on the value and advantages of this material, it has reached a leading position in production, constantly investing in research and technological innovation, in just a few decades.
Its factory is located in the heart of the ceramic district, at Fiorano Modenese (MO), and covers a total industrial area of 175,000 m², 70,000 of which are covered, boasting the best technologies and raw materials.
Talking about production... few people are familiar with the processing phases that result into porcelain tiles, despite their popularity.
Let's discover them together, step by step, in this article!
Porcelain tiles are obtained by a process in which various raw materials (clays, kaolins, feldspars and sand) are properly mixed together, ground, spray dried and then pressed.
The process called spray drying turns the slip, the mixture of water and raw materials, into spray dried material, a sandy powder ready for pressing. Inside two enormous spray driers, special nozzles convey it towards a jet of high temperature air which evaporates the water, leaving the grains of material to fall onto a conveyor belt.
Pressing confers the desired form on the mix obtained from spray drying. Each press can apply a total force of 8,200 tons, at a specific pressure of around 450 kg/cm², thus compacting even large surfaces to perfection. The resulting product is then sent to the vertical driers, in which a flow of hot air eliminates almost all humidity in preparation for firing.
Digital decoration gives the surfaces the aesthetic appearance and finish that distinguishes each collection, reproducing the desired effect (marble, stone, wood, etc.) with extreme realism.
Firing is one of the most important steps of the entire ceramic production process, transforming the semi-finished products into the finished product. The firing cycle inside special kilns (which are continuously fed in an automatic way) reaches a temperature of about 1250°C, allowing the sintering of the mixtures and the crystallisation of the decoration, giving the ceramics the desired final appearance and high technical characteristics.
After the firing step, a scrupulous automated selection process sorts ceramic tiles with homogeneous technical and aesthetic characteristics, packaging them in a way that meets logistical requirements. Surfaces that differ even slightly from the standard are instead scrapped and recycled by re-introducing them into the production cycle, visibly reducing the consumption of raw materials and waste materials.
Every step in order preparation and processing is handled by automated equipment and a team of specialist operators. All activities are coordinated by the computerised system, thus greatly reducing the risk of errors and delays and offering concrete advantages to the client.
Do you have any further question on our production process, our research and development method or are you looking for more information about our ceramic collections? Contact us